Introduction to Pipe Fittings

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Reciprocating Compressor Testing

The reciprocating compressor testing article provides information about reciprocating compressor mechanical running test, aerodynamic testing, hydro static testing, gas leakage … More

External Defects

Undercut A groove melted into the base metal adjacent to the WELD TOE OR WELD ROOT AND LEFT UNFILLED by … More


Incomplete Penetration Incomplete penetration happens when your filler metal and base metal aren’t joined properly, and the result is a … More


A diagram of a water jet cutter. #1: high-pressure water inlet. #2: jewel (ruby or diamond). #3: abrasive (garnet). #4: … More

Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM)

A tunnel boring machine (TBM), also known as a “mole”, is a machine used to excavate tunnels with a circular cross section through a … More

Pressure Reducing Valve

A pressure-reducing valve maintains lower pressures in branches of hydraulic systems. The system relief valve or other pressure-setting device determines upstream main … More


Arc welding is a welding process that is used to join metal to metal by using electricity to create enough heat to melt metal, and the melted … More

P & ID Symbols and Notation

Contents About P&ID symbols Equipment symbols Piping symbols Vessel symbols Heat exchanger symbols Pump symbols Instrument symbols Valve symbols Like … More