Chemical injection skids:
Generally the Oil and Gas Extraction process requires Injection for its application.
Chemical injection systems typically consist of multiple chemical services with associated single or multi-compartment storage tanks or pressure vessels.
In the Injection, Major factor is the Injection rate and Injection temperature.
The purpose of injecting the chemicals into a system is to protect the mechanical integrity of the system from accelerated corrosion and prevent scale formation.
Types of Injection Skids:
- Chemical Injection Skid Packages (Methanol, Phosphate, Demulsifier, etc.)
- Corrosion Inhibitor Injection Skid.
- Oxygen Scavenger Skid.
- Scale Inhibitor Injection Skid.
- Multi injection Pump Skid Packages.
- Power Water Injections Skid.
- ZV Skid.
- Dye Injection Skid.
- DRA Injection Skid.
- Caustic Injection Skid.
A modular process skid is a process system contained within a frame that allows the process system to be easily transported. Individual skids can contain complete process systems and multiple process skids can be combined to create larger process systems.
Based on the application and design the Modular skids are assembled suitable for conventional and unconventional applications.
The Modular skids are Installed both Brown and Green fields development.
The complete components required in between the wellhead Christmas tree and Process main flow line are assembled in a single integrated unit as a skid.
The Modular skids classified Gas and Oil and Water Injection skids.
The control, Electrical wiring , Flow meters, Instrumentation, Insulation ,Piping with cladding ,Isolation valves and Wellhead control panels, Ventruri ,Multiphase and ultrasonic Meters and chemical Injection skid with Pump and Gas Detectors and control Shelter with Emergency shutdown PLC ,switch rack Panels ,choke valves are the major part of the skids.
Modular skids Classified:
- Gas Modular Skid.
- Oil Modular Skid.
- Annuli Riser Skid.
- Off Plot –Tie In Facilities Skid (OPTF SKID).
- Power Water Injection skid.
Surge Relief Skids:
A pressure surge is generated in a pipeline system when there is any change in the rate of flow of liquid in the line. The surge pressure can be dangerously high if the change is too rapid.
Hydraulic-surge package should be a complete surge analysis. Part of the results of such analysis is the determination of how much flow will need to be relieved and at what set pressure. These two design criteria will help select a properly sized surge-relief package which will reduce surge pressure to an acceptable level during unsteady state flow conditions.
Surge pressures (water hammer) in piping systems are generated by changes in the velocity of flow in a system. These sudden velocity changes can be caused by the operation of valves and pumps, or by expulsion of air from the piping system. These surges can be removed by using surge relief system.
Surge relief protection is critical for the Hydraulic, Transmission Lines, and Oil Tanker Loading Terminals industry to ensure safety, regulatory
In many applications like pipelines, loading, storage terminals, equipment and personnel need to be protected from the potential damage that can be caused by pressure surges.
Custody transfer in fluid measurement is defined as a metering point (location) where the fluid is being measured for sale from one party to another.
During custody transfer, accuracy is of great importance to both the company delivering the material and the eventual recipient, when transferring a material
A Meter Skid is a special platform on which various devices and instruments are installed. The Meter Skid consists of pipelines, filters and other equipment necessary for the metering function.
Due to the high level of Accuracy requirement the meters are selected based on American Petroleum Institute (API), Saudi Aramco Material Standards, Specifications and Procedures.
A typical liquid custody transfer skid includes multiple flowmeters and meter provers. Provers are used to calibrate meters in-situ and are performed frequently; typically, before, during, and after a batch transfer for metering assurance.
All monitoring and operations are done by flow computer along with Supervisory Control.All these components are installed and tested offsite. After the successful testing of the skid, it is shipped to the location where it is going to be used and installed as a main metering unit.
Truck Loading Skid:
Top Loading Skid:
These skids are designed to load the fluid from the top of the Tank. It consists of Top loading arms which permit the transfer of liquid from one tank to another through the manhole on the top of a Tank.
Bottom Loading Skid:
These skids are designed to load the fluid from the Bottom of the Tank. This system shall be equipped with a local preset device to shut off the flow of product after apredetermined amount has been metered. Bottom loading takes place on the ground, making it inherently safer for the operator.
- Fuel Oil
- LPG, etc.
- Provide assurance of continuous product transfer & multi stage flow control rate with precise batch delivery.
- Ensure fault-free start up with full factory flow and functionality testing
- Reduce risk, cost, and time.
Oil Modular Skids:
Oil modular skids are mainly designed to regulate the oil stream coming from oil well. The Skid is directly connected to x-mas tree and high pressurized oil flows through pipe line. Several Measuring instruments and control valves were used to regulate the flow. The corrosion monitor is connected to the pipeline to check the corrosion content.
The sampling cylinder is installed to get the sample for testing. A multiphase flowmeter is a device used to measure the individual phase flow rates in which water and gas mixtures produced during oil production processes
All components are specially designed to handle the pressure and maintain the normal flow rate. The complete package can be fully integrated and tested as one unit. The skids are designed based on the parameters given by client.
A pressure reduction station (ZV SKID) is used to drop a high supply pressure down to the pressure used by the downstream installation. They operate on liquids, vapors and gases.
The pressure reduction valve is designed to be self-regulating, which means it adjusts the size of the opening through which the liquid, vapor or gas passes so that only enough to cause the necessary downstream pressure is permitted past. The valves work by balancing one force against another. When one force is larger than the other the valve stem moves in the opposite direction.
Two main groups of pressure control valves are available for either pressure reduction or back pressure applications:
- Self-acting, requiring no external power orinput.
- Pneumatically & Electrically Actuated with either a pneumatic or electrical control system.